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Vol. XIV No. 1 

Entered at the Postoffice at Moscow, Idaho, as Second Class Mail Matter 


Being an Extract from the Third Biennial Report of the State 

Board of Education and Board of Regents of 

the University of Idaho. 

JANUARY, 1919 




To the Board of Education: 

The biennium just closing spans the interval of active participation 
by the United States in the Great War. The University of Idaho in 
common with all other institutions of higher learning marshalled its 
resources so far as possible for the business of war. It contributed 
an unusually large proportion of its men to Army and Navy. It sup- 
plied experts in special lines of war duty. It modified its courses of 
study. Thru the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, National Army 
Training Detachment, and Students' Army Training Corps, it func- 
tioned as an adjunct of the War Department and the United States 

Its extension service of more than a hundred field workers in Idaho 
has carried forward the war program of increased crop "production 
and the conservation of food supplies. The College of Agriculture 
and the Agricultural Experiment Station have also done much to stim- 
ulate crops and livestock production. 

The University School of Mines has conducted an extensive search 
for the minerals most needed in war. The University School of For- 
estry has assisted in surveys of lands suitable for returned soldiers. 
The College of Engineering has been indefatigable in enlisting its 
graduates and undergraduates in positions of greatest military useful- 
ness. The Department of Home Economics in cooperation with other 
departments of the University has assisted in the statewide program 
of the United States Eood Administration and also engaged most ac- 
tively in training young women for the emergencies of the war, in- 
cluding new vocations. 

The College of Letters and Science has brought the message of the 
meaning of the war and of the ideals for which our nation was con- 

In all departments, therefore, the University has done what it 
could to assist in the winning of the war. 


The war has moreover demonstrated the imperative need of higher 
education. It is not too much to say that the chief victors in the great 
confiict are science and humane ideals. Both of these stand in neces- 
sary and vital relation to the colleges and universities of the country. 

The war has been a contest of applied sciences; of engineering, 
chemistry, geology, meteorology, physchology, et cetera. The enemy 
threatened for a time to win victory because of her superior mastery 
of science in relation to war. The Allies began to win preponderance 
only with the complete mobilization of her scientific men. Early in the 

Biennial Report, 1017-18 

war England acknowledged her weakness in this respect and formu- 
lated a comprehensive program of higher education which involves a 
radical reconstruction and a larger recognition of the service rendered 
by school and college. 


And now peace comes with its problems of reorganization — problems 
which can be successfully attacked only by trained men and women. 

The war has taught us to think in billions. If civilization was 
worth billions to preserve, it is worth billions to maintain and im- 
prove. Peace must thus claim large sums for the upbuilding of the 
social order. The cost of a single superdreadnaught would supply ad- 
ditional permanent endowment for the University of Idaho sufficient 
to enable it to double its present service to the State. Idaho gave 
generously and easily in a single recent war drive more than she 
spends in a year on all her institutions of higher learning. 


During the present biennium the work of the three divisions of 
agriculture — the College of Agriculture, the Experiment Station, and 
the Department of Agricultural Extension — were unified by the ap- 
pointment of E, J. Iddings as Dean of Agriculture and Director of the 
Experiment Station. Lee W. Fluharty was appointed Director of Ag- 
ricultural Extension and the service was expanded, partly as a war 
measure, until it includes a large staff of specialists, county agricul- 
tural agents in each of thirty-one counties, home demonstration agents, 
and extension of boys' and girls' club work to a membership of more 
than 10,000. 

In recognition of the importance of the mining industry in Idaho 
there was established, in 1917, a School of Mines, including geology, 
with Francis A. Thomson as Dean, The importance of forestry was 
likewise recognized by the establishment of a School of Forestry with 
Francis G. Miller as Dean. 

E. M. Hulme was the same year appointed Dean of the College of 
Letters and Science, and James J. Gill, Acting Dean of the College of 
Law. In 1918, M. F. Angell was appointed Director of Vocational 
Training of Soldiers. 

During 1918, also, the Department of Music has been reorganized 
under the direction of Professor E. O. Bangs. It is proposed to ex- 
pand this department in response to general demand with a view to 
providing not only for individual instruction but also developing school 
and community music. It is anticipated that this department will be 
largely self-supporting. 

Idaho is probably the only State University in America which has 
not conducted a Summer Session within the last two years. It is gen- 
erally recognized that a school of university grade open to teachers is 
an indispensable contribution to public education. The rapid advances 

University of Idaho 

of educational theory and practice during recent years amount almost 
to a revolution. It is hig-hly important for the development of a right 
State pride and knowledge of problems peculiar to Idaho that courses 
o'f university grade be offered. The expense of such a summer session 
is slight as compared with the benefits to the individuals and to the 
State. Therefore, I respectfully urge the re-establishment of the Uni- 
versity Summer School. 


In June, 1918, the University was assigned by the War Department 
a quota of 106 drafted men for vocational training. These men were 
to be given intensive training for two months in one of the following 
lines of work: Radio work, auto mechanics, general mechanics, car- 
pentry and blacksmithing. A contingent of the same number was ad- 
mitted August 15th. In October this quota was increased to 326 and 
was known as Section B of the Students' Army Training Corps. Of 
this contingent, 200 were from Idaho and 100 from Wyoming. The 
larger quota was made possible thru the generous cooperation of the 
citizens of Moscow and the Idaho Harvester Company, which latter 
placed their excellent plant at the service of the University. 

In addition, the Inland Hospital was placed at the disposal of the 
University by Dr. W. H. Carithers, and the Elks Temple was assigned 
by members of that order as a hospital for convalescents during the 
influenza epidemic. 


On October 1st the War Department established a unit of the Stu- 
dents' Army Training Corps, Collegiate Section, at the University, in 
addition to Section B already mentioned. More than 500 men appeared 
for physical examination. The students who were inducted were quar- 
tered in barracks and fed in a temporary mess hall on the campus. It 
was purposed thus to train selected men to qualify as officers in the 
United States Army. The universities and colleges were expected to 
supply thru the S. A. T. C. the greater number of officers for the en- 
larged army. The work of the Corps began auspiciously only to be 
interrupted by an epidemic of influenza and the resulting quarantine. 
All efforts were immediately directed to the task of caring for the sick 
and the protection of others from the disease. Before the quarantine 
was terminated came the armistice, and as a result of the armistice 
there came on November 26th the order providing for the demobiliza- 
tion of the Students' Army Training Corps. 

The effect of the establishment of the Students' Army Training 
Corps promised to be in many respects most salutary. From every 
quarter of the State came the demand that adequate provision be made 
for young soldiers in their own State University. Analysis of attend- 
ance shows that every county in Idaho is represented. Mutual ac- 

90 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

quaintance established in classroom and in barracks will, it is hoped, 
mean much to the development of the State and its higher life. 


In 1918 Mr. Jerome J. Day established an annual scholarship of 
$1,000, to be awarded to the selected students of Shoshone County who 
desire to enroll in the School of Mines. A committee consisting of the 
President of the University, the Commissioner of Education and the 
Dean of the School of Mines makes the award annually. 


The Student Loan Fund, established by the Women's Federated 
Clubs of Idaho, has now reached approximately the sum of $7000. The 
money is loaned without interest to deserving students in order to as- 
sist them in securing University training. Many high schools and 
clubs have subscribed units of $100.00 to this fund, and $4,200.00 has 
been pledged during the last two years. Special acknowledgment should 
be made to Mrs. M. J. Sweeley, who is President of the Women's Fed- 
erated Clubs of Idaho, for her untiring service in behalf of this im- 
portant contribution to higher education. 


A growing institution obviously has many needs. The foremost 
need of the University of Idaho, however, is an enlarged salary budget. 
The chief strength of a University is its men. If the Faculty possesses 
teaching ability, capacity for research, and distinguished personal 
qualities, the University will render a mighty contribution to the com- 
monwealth. The following table of comparative salary scales requires 
little comment. 

Table Showing Highest Pay in Various Positions 

Ass tciate Assistant Instruc- 
Professors Professors Professors tors 

University of Montana. .$3,360.00 $2,700.00 $1,600.00 

Oregon Agric. College. . 3,200.00 $2,400.00 2,100.00 1,500.00 

State Col. of Washington 3,000.00 2,200.00 2,000.00 1,600.00 

University of Idaho 2,500.00 2,000.00 1,800.00 1,400.00 

If Idaho is to retain her best men — and surely the best are none 
too good for the sons and daughters of Idaho — she must provide con- 
siderable increase in the appropriation for their maintenance. The 
normal annual increase for salaries in the past has been about $15,- 
000.00, but this has not enabled the University to keep pace with 
neighboring States. It must also be recognized that the remuneration 
of scholars has in recent years greatly advanced. 


The scientist must have tools as well as does the blacksmith and 
the farmer. Some of this equipment is expensive. It is indispensable, 

University of Idaho 91 

however, if problems are to be solved and teaching properly conducted. 
In a word, the equipment multiplies the efficiency of the scholar. 

As a result of the reduced expenditures of the last two years many 
departments arc at present greatly handicapped. The requests for 
equipment budgets represent only such provision as is needed for rea- 
sonable maintenance and improvement of resources. 


Several years ago the Board of Education adopted a ten-year 
building program as described in the Biennial Report for 1915-16. 

I respectfully urge the importance of the above program. 

In view of the high cost of building construction at the present 
time and in recognition also of the greater need for maintenance, the 
special requests for building are nominal and, it is feared, below what 
may be necessary for the most favorable development of the work and 
prestige of the University. 

Special attention is called to the division which follows, containing 
the reports of deans and directors. These reports are a record of 
gratifying progress and a concrete statement of the most important 
needs of various divisions of the University. 


Herewith are presented brief summaries of achievement and pro- 
grams of various divisions of the University as discussed by their re- 
spective heads, as follows: 

Dean of the University Faculty. 

Dean of Women. 

Dean of the College of Letters and Science. 

Dean of the College of Agriculture. 

Dean of the College of Engineering. 

Dean of the School of Forestry. 

Acting Dean of the College of Law. 

Dean of the School of Mines. 

Commanding Officer of the Military Department. 

Chairman of the Pre-Medic Committee. 

Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Director of the Agricultural Extension Department. 

Director of Vocational Training of Soldiers. 


To the President: 

The departments of instruction of the University are so grouped 
that they comprise the following colleges and schools, offering the cur- 
ricula indicated: 

92 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

College of Letters and Science — General curricula with majors in 
commerce, economics and political science, English, French, German, 
Greek, history, Latin, law, music, philosophy, botany, chemistry, ge- 
ology, mathematics, physics, and zoology — four years each; a special- 
ized curriculum in home economics, four years; school of education, 
four years; studies preparatory to medicine, four, three or two years; 
studies preparatory to law, one or two years. 

College of Agriculture — Animal husbandry, dairying, farm crops, 
horticulture, four years each; school of practical agriculture and 
household arts, three years; five months each year; practical cream- 
ery course, five months. 

College of Engineering — Civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical 
engineering, four years each. 

College of Law — Three-year curriculum. 

School of Mines — Four-year curricula in mining engineering, met- 
allurgy, and geology; eight weeks course for prospectors, miners and 

School of Forestry — Four-year curricula in general forestry, forest 
engineering, and forest grazing; forest rangers' course, three years of 
five months each. 


Like all other educational institutions the .University has been con- 
siderably affected in its attendance since April, 1917, by the war. There 
were no summer sessions held in 1917 and 1918. During the summer 
of 1918, however, two contingents of vocational student-soldiers were 
trained upon the campus, totaling 209 men. For the year 1916-17 the 
total attendance amounted to 715 and for 1917-18, including the above 
209 soldiers, 801. The figures for the first eight weeks of the present 
college year show an enrollment of 990. Of these no less than 712 
are in the Students' Army Training Corps. 

Summary of Annual Enrollment, 1916-17 and 1917-18 

(Sept. 1, 1916, to Aug. 31, 1917) 

(Sept. 1, 1917, to Aug. 31, 1918) 
I. By Colleges and Curricula: 1916-17 1917-18 

College of Letters and Science 406 297 

Graduate Students 14 11 

B. A. Curriculum 204 178 

B. A. (Education) Curriculum 8 9 

B. S. Curriculum 60 45 

Music 22 21 

Home Economics Curriculum 40 33 

Forest Curricula 29 * 

Night School •• 18 * 

Forest Reserve 11 * 

University of Idaho 93 

College of Agriculture 175 145 

Graduate Students 5 * 

Four-year Curricula 80 63 

Household Arts Curriculum 19 19 

Five-months Dairy 5 4 

School of Practical Agriculture and 

Household Arts 66 59 

College of Engineering 72 52 

Graduate Students . . , 1 * 

Civil Engineering Curriculum 12 13 

Mining Engineering Curriculum 11 * 

Miners' Short Course 8 * 

Electrical Engineering Curriculum 19 14 

Mechanical Engineering Curriculum 10 15 

Chemical Engineering Curriculum 11 10 

College of Law 40 25 

Graduate Student 1 

Law Curriculum 39 25 

School of Mines * 23 

Graduate Students * 2 

Four-year Curriculum * 12 

Miners' Short Course (net) * 9 

School of Forestry * 50 

Four-year Curricula * 10 

Forest Rangers . , * 6 

Forestry Correspondence Students * 34 

Correspondence Students (net) 22 

Vocational Students 209 

First Contingent, June 15, 1918 100 

Second Contingent, August 15, 1918 109 

Totals 715 801 

II. By Classes: 1916-17 1917-18 

Graduate Students 21 13 

Seniors 84 49 

Juniors 97 00 

Sophomores 120 110 

Freshmen 203 173 

Unclassed 60 45 

Special Agricultural Courses 71 63 

Miners Short Course 4 9 

Forest Rangers 4 6 

Separate Schools of Mines and Forestry established in 1917-18. 

94 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

Forestry Correspondence Students 34 

Correspondence Students 28 

Night School 23 

Regular Session 715 592 

Vocational Students 209 

Totals 715 801 

Geographical Distribution of Students 


Ada 64 

Adams 4 

Bannock 7 

Bear Lake 2 

Benewah 5 

Bingham 5 

Blaine 7 

Boise 4 

Bonner 17 

Bonneville 5 

Boundary 3 



Canyon 47 


Clearwater 6 

Custer 6 


Franklin 1 

Fremont 1 

Gem 10 

Gooding 5 

Idaho 13 

Jefferson 2 

Kootenai 42 

Latah 221 

Lemhi 1 

Lewis 23 

Lincoln 13 

Madison 1 

Minidoka 4 

Nez Perce 20 

Oneida 3 


1917-18 1918-19 

(to Nov. 22) 


































































University of Idaho 


Owyhee 7 


Power 3 

Shoshone 17 


Twin Falls 23 


Washington 11 

Total Idaho Students 603 

Outside of Idaho 112 

Total 715 
























One substantial evidence of the growth of the University is afforded 
by the numbers that are graduated year by year from the various 
curricula. The total number of degrees conferred to date is 761. 
Nearly one-half of these have been granted in the last six years. The 
records of graduation are as follows: 



First ■" 








. . 































31 - 


























. . 



















. . 




















96 Biennial Report, 19 17-1 < 












Deduct for those receiv- 

ing second degree 








Net total of Graduates . 

. 735 



Living- Graduates 

. 712 

Summary of Degrees Conferred, 1894-1918 

Bachelor's Degrees: 

Bachelor of Arts 242 

Bachelor of Arts in Education 2 

Bachelor of Philosophy (discontinued 1899) 6 

Bachelor of Science 118 

Bachelor of Music (discontinued 1914) 17 

Bachelor of Science in Home Economics 25 

Bachelor of Science in Household Arts 8 

Bachelor of Science in Forestry 15 

Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering 62 

Bachelor of Science in Mining Engineering 68 

Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering 30 

Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering 4 

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering 6 

Bachelor of Science in Agriculture 75 

Bachelor of Laws 56 

Advanced Degrees: 

Civil Engineer 1 

Master of Arts 4 

Master of Science 10 

Master of Science in Mining Engineering 1 

Master of Science in Agriculture 4 

Master of Science in Forestry 1 

Honorary Degrees: 

Master of Arts (honorary) 1 

Doctor of Music 1 

Doctor of Divinity 2 

Doctor of Laws 2 

Total Degrees 761 



University of Idaho 97 

Increase of Work 
In conclusion, it should be said that the large increase in students 
adds greatly to the load upon this office, which is coming more and 
more to be not only the depository of all scholastic records but also 
a bureau of general information both for all students and faculty 
members and for persons outside the University. The Students' Army 
Training Corps has added a further burden of statistical reports and 
recording. In view of this multiplicity of service and considering the 
probable further increase in students during the next biennium, a 
larger provision should be made both in physical quarters and in cler- 
ical assistance. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean of the University Faculty. 


To the President: 

The enrollment of women at the University for 1917 and 1918 was 
one hundred and ninety-five. 

Beginning January first there will be a decided increase in number 
as many college women engaged in war service will be released. 

The scholarship of the women has always been the very best and 
increased honor has been theirs for these two years. 

The University is rapidly providing the State with excellent teach- 
ers, county agents, county club leaders and extension workers. These 
women give splendid evidence of the fine character of work being done 
here; they are also the incentive to many parents in deciding where 
to send their boys and girls. 

The war over many wounded soldiers will be equipped for much 
of the service we might have concluded would be required of women, 
so it would seem that the University must interest and educate women 
largely in vocations that will remain the vocations of women. 

There will be immediate demands for social workers, community 
recreation workers, community health workers and family rehabilita- 
tion workers. In preparation for such special service the largest op- 
portunities for musical, dramatic, artistic and physical education must 
be afforded. 

To the Department of Home Economics has been added an instruc- 
tor in art, equipping the department for the fullest and best training. 

Excellent work will be done in music but there should be increased 
advantages in this department. 

In response to the public demand for secretarial work by well 
educated women the University has made provision in connection with 
the Department of Economics for the necessary preliminary training. 

If the department of physical training is to offer more than just 
required work, there should be an assistant employed. 

98 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

If we look forward we must contemplate the advantages that will 
accrue to women when they have a building where all is especially 
"woman's work" can be assembled. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Dean of Women. 


To the President: 

In the last two years (1917-18) the College of Letters and Science 
has gone about its work in a quiet and business-like manner. There 
have been the usual number of changes in the faculty caused by resig- 
nations, promotions, and additions. One department, that of Forestry, 
has been taken from the College and established as a separate School; 
and another, that of Geology, has been transferred to the newly estab- 
lished School of Mines. 

The work of the College has been changed this year (1918-19) to 
meet the requirements of the Students' Army Training Corps; and it 
may possibly remain in the present condition, or one somewhat like it, 
for another year; but we ought to lose no time in looking forward to 
conditions as they will exist after the conclusion of peace. No one 
can say with precision what those conditions will be but two new 
conditions seem quite probable. It seems that there will be, in the 
first place, a larger number of students in the University than ever 
before. This increase will be caused by (1) the return of men from 
military service, and of women from teaching and other work, whose 
college careers have been interrupted; (2) the addition to the ordin- 
ary annual influx of high school graduates of men who went into teach- 
ing and other work, who intended in the first place to get a college 
education; (3) the continuance of college work by men now in college 
who came to us only because of membership in the Students' Army 
Training Corps and who nov/ see the advantages of a college educa- 
tion; and (4) the men who in ordinary times would not have come 
to college but who now have been brought to a decision to get a college 
education by the widespread change in social ideals caused by the 
war. The first new condition, then, seems to be that we shall have 
to face a considerable increase of numbers. 

The second new condition that will confront us in the immediate 
future will be improvements in the various curricula, and in methods 
of instruction and study. It seems inevitable that college work will 
be vitalized, that it will be brought into closer and more effective 
relation with life than ever before. 

One thing we can do to prepare for these changes is to provide 
more buildings and increase our equipment. We have already reached 
the point, so the present writer is firmly convinced, when we should 
begin work upon a great library building. That building, the several 
sections of which can be built only one at a time, should contain a 

University of Idaho 99 

stack-room large enough to meet our needs for the next generation ; 
a study room capable of seating at least eight hundred students; 
an auditorium that will accommodate five hundred students, fitted 
up for lectures, lantern talks, and concerts; many small individual 
offices; and lecture rooms of various sizes. 

The one thing in the matter of equipment that the present writer 
desires to emphasize is an adequate appropriation for the library. 
Never in the entire history of the University has the appropriation 
for the library been as large as it should have been; and in every 
instance in which the administrative officials deemed it necessary to 
curtail our expenditures the library has been the first to suffer. 

The following table shows the number of our four-year college 
students arranged according to colleges, the number of all those who 
may be justly regarded as genuine college students. It will be seen 
that the students in the College of Letters and Science exceed in 
number those in all other colleges combined. 

Oct. 26 
1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918 

Letters and Science 334 355 276 378 

Agriculture 81 64 82 109 

Engineering 63 64 52 123 

Law 34 40 25 11 

School of Mines ... 14 21 

School of Forestry ... 10 33 

Total 512 563 459 675 

The professional colleges make direct use of the library for their 
own special purposes to a considerable extent, and their students 
depend very largely upon the library in many of the foundational 
courses given in the College of Letters and Science. But the library, 
important as it is for the professional colleges, is the very soul of the 
College of Letters and Science. In it the life of the modern university 
finds its center. All the interests of the campus, however separate 
and diverse they may be, find in it their single and indispensable 
meeting place. And this central position of the library will become 
more evident in the near future. One of the finest things in the 
program of the British Labor Party is the demand for the education 
of the mass of the people not only in mechanical skill and professional 
knowledge but also in the fulness of life, in what only too many of 
us have been ready to relegate to a distinctly subordinate position as 
mere culture. If we are to profit to the fullest possible extent by the 
tremendous ordeal thru which civilization is now passing, we must 
have easily accessible the recorded experience of all the nations for 
our information and guidance, and we can have this experience in no 
place other than the library. For these reasons the present writer 
urges, with all the emphasis at his command, that the coming legisla- 

100 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

ture be asked for an appropriation for the library at least twice as 
large as any single appropriation that has been made for it in the 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean, College of Letters and Science. 


To the President: 

The work of the Agricultural College during the past two years 
has been largely affected by war activities. The biennium was started 
with the heaviest enrollment in the history of the college. Upper 
classmen began to leave soon after the declaration of war. A large 
proportion of the student body requested leave in April and May to 
either enter military service or to work on the farm in response to the 
call for increased food production. 

The Sophomore, Junior, and Senior classes were reduced materially 
early in the school year of 1917-18, and by the end of the year few 
upper classmen remained. The farm labor situation became serious, 
and about one-half of the Freshmen, nearly all of whom were under 
21 years of age, were given a speeded-up course in order that they 
might be released early in April for farm work. 

The late opening of 1918, October first, is thought to have had a 
favorable effect upon attendance. The enrollment to date is 84 per cent 
Freshmen, due to the absence of upper classmen who have volunteered 
or been inducted into service and due to a Freshman class 180 per cent 
larger than in any former year. 

Faculty Changes 

There have been some marked changes in the teaching force, due 
to voluntary enlistment or drafting of instructors, and due to resig- 
nations for other causes. As it seemed probable that there would be 
this year but few upper classmen, a saving in the expense of the 
teaching personnel was made by leaving unfilled vacancies as follows: 
Instructor in Veterinary Science, Creameryman, Instructor in Dairy 
Production, Associate in Agricultural Chemistry, and Instructor in 
Horticulture. Several men have devoted a portion of their time to 
Extension. One man in soils has been placed on half time Extension. 
Others who have had light or no teaching duties as a result of the 
war situation have devoted a greater share of attention to investiga- 

During the biennium there have been 14 resignations and 13 new 
appointments. Four men have been granted leave of absence to enter- 
military service. 

The first graduate in Agriculture was in 1901. There were no 
more graduates until 1909, and by far the larger number have been 
graduated in Agriculture since 1910. Of the total number of men 

University of Idaho 101 

who hold either the Bachelor of Science or Master of Science degree 
in Agriculture from the institution, 44 per cent are now in the mili- 
tary and naval service of the United States, the larger number hold- 
ing commissions and positions of honor and responsibility. Several 
men prior to entering military service, or men who have remained in 
professional lines of work during the war, have been advanced to 
important positions in technical work in Agriculture. Of the total 
number of graduates, 25 per cent are in college, state, or federal work 
of a technical nature, 

New Buildings and Improvements 

Improvements made in the past two years add measurably to the 
class, laboratory, and other facilities of the College of Agriculture. 
The Dairy Building was constructed late in 1917, and is a substantial 
three-story structure, containing six thousand square feet of floor 
space. The entire building is devoted to the Department of Dairying, 
giving excellent facilities for carrying on this most important work. 
The space in Morrill Hall released by the removal of the Dairy offices, 
testing laboratories, and the creamery, has been utilized in providing 
additional storage for publications, office room for the Dean and 
Director, in giving excellent laboratory and storage rooms for Farm 
Crops, a nitrogen laboratory for Soils work, and an office for the 
Assistant County Agent Leader, in charge of the work in northern 
Idaho, and for the District Home Demonstration Agent, located at 
Moscow. The new provisions for Farm Crops have released the space 
on the third floor, which will give much better accommodations for 
the School of Forestry, 

For several years shelter has not been available for properly caring 
for the large and valuable live stock herds of the University. Three 
new barns were erected during the summer and fall of 1917. The 
new horse barn, 40 by 112 feet, is a substantial and thoroughly modern 
structure, admirably planned for convenience and efficiency in handling 
the University pure bred and grade horses. The sheep barn is 3ii 
by 88 feet, with storage overhead in a part of the total length for hay 
and grain, providing a herdsman's room and having exercise lots in 
connection. The new barn for swine is 28 by 96 feet, and provides 21 
pens, feed and tool room. It has exercise lots in connection with each 
pen. Additional improvements are 1100 rods of fencing, new gates, 
and a concrete silo, 10 by 42, for the Department of Dairying, 

Teachers Training 

In 1918 the terms of the Smith-Hughes bill were met by the State 
Board of Education, A four-year course for training teachers of 
Agriculture was outlined, and has been formally approved by the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education. The first two years the 
new curriculum is the same as required of all Freshmen and Sopho- 
mores in Agriculture. The Junior and Senior years are largely elec- 

102 Biennial Report, 1017-18 

tive within certain clearly defined limits. Comments on the plan pro- 
posed in Idaho in meeting the needs for teacher training in Agricul- 
ture have been quite favorable. With the coming of peace there will 
no doubt be a call for a large number of trained men for work in 
high schools that are assisted by the Smith-Hughes fund, and the 
teacher training work here should develop rapidly with the return 
of a normal student body. 

School of Practical Agriculture 

The legislation enacted by Congress during the summer, extending 
the draft ages, had a marked effect upon attendance in the School of 
Practical Agriculture. The registration showed a slight decrease in 
1917-18, due probably to the very great need of men on the farm. 
The call for younger men in the fall of this year resulted in a loss 
of two-thirds of the normal enrollment in the School. This is not 
surprising, not only on account of the call for military service, but 
because of unusual demands for labor, which would naturally affect 
most quickly the class of enterprising young men who make up the 
normal enrollment in the short courses in Agriculture. 

Instructional Facilities 

The present teaching force is less than that employed at the end 
of the previous biennium, due to reasons previously set forth. Former 
strength must be attained, however, as soon as student conditions 
justify, and in addition the salary estimates provide for certain new 
appointments that will offer the student body the best facilities in the 
history of the Agricultural College. Already evidences are at hand of 
the return of students, and it is felt that we can reasonably expect 
a larger attendance than in former years. 

A portion of the increased call for salaries and expense is for 
Agricultural Engineering. Professor John C. Wooley of that De- 
partment has done notable work in directing the training of enlisted 
men in auto mechanics, his present class consisting of 150 men in 
the vocational section. There has been a strong demand for work in 
motors in the collegiate section and he now has a five credit course 
with 25 men enrolled. In order to make his Department more useful, 
he is offering this winter a two weeks' short course in Tractors. We 
have never fully measured up to our responsibilities and our oppor- 
tunities in the field of Irrigation. This is one of the lines of work 
that must be given a prominent place in our program. There will 
be found in the budget submitted a definite request for the employment 
of a man who is trained in Agricultural Engineering, with special 
reference to Irrigation. His functions should be both instructional 
and investigational. The addition of this work in the Department of 
Agricultural Engineering is of the very greatest importance in con- 
nection with properly serving the educational needs of Idaho. 

University of Idaho 103 

There is a request for increased funds for the support of the 
Department of Farm Crops, including the employment of a man for 
Farm Manaj^-ement. One of Idaho's greatest businesses is that of 
crop production. So far, we have given little attention to a related 
line of v/ork of very great importance, namely, Farm Management. 
This has to do largely with the economic side of Agriculture. There 
is more and more call for information along this line, and there is a 
widespread feeling among farmers that the College should give more 
attention to this very important phase of Agriculture. 

Improvements and Upkeep 

There is a request for $3000 for the cost of fencing, painting, up- 
keep, and minor improvements on the University Farm. This item 
includes the painting of the beef cattle barn, the staining of the 
dairy cattle barn, the painting of five residences, poultry houses, the 
horticultural barn, mill, tool house, and by-products building. Other 
details of this request contemplate fencing, a concrete manure pit at 
the horse barn and one at the dairy cattle barn, gates, repairing of 
judging pavilion, placing of signs at entrances to the farm and on 
the buildings, repair and upkeep of houses and barns, and a truck 
for general use about the farm. 

The Department of Poultry Husbandry has been in need of addi- 
tional room for housing poultry, for proper feed storage, and a place 
in which student judging and other practical work may be done. The 
estimated cost is $2500. 

In constructing the Dairy Building there did not seem to be suf- 
ficient funds to place a suitable floor for the second story. This floor 
is used for butter making and other dairy practices, and must of 
necessity be water tight and of such nature that it can be kept scrupu- 
lously clean. The present floor is not at all satisfactory. A floor of 
tiling is suggested, which, together with other minor improvements, 
will cost approximately $1500. 

In addition to the above there is requested $1000 for contingent 
and emergency. 


The total requests are larger than for former years for two 
reasons. First, it is absolutely necessary to pay higher salaries, if 
Idaho is to retain strong men for her work. The total proposed salary 
increase for the coming biennium, as compared with the salaries in 
effect at the beginning of the present biennium, is $16,000. Second, 
it is proposed to strengthen certain departments and to offer new 
lines of v/ork that will enable us to render more effective service than 
ever before to young men interested in securing agricultural training 
and to the State as a whole. 

Technical leadership is the greatest single contribution that the 
Agricultural College can make to Idaho. The emphasis, therefore. 

104 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

in the coming biennium, should be placed on men, that each depart- 
ment may have at least one trained and experienced man upon whom 
the farmers of Idaho and the young men of the State may confidently 
depend for leadership. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean and Director. 


To the President: 

The Engineering College as now organized offers thoro and well 
considered curricula in the fields of Civil, Electrical, Mechanical and 
Chemical Engineering, The great war in which we have been en- 
gaged has directed attention to the outstanding place of these pro- 
fessions not alone in modern warfare but as well in the work of re- 
construction which must make good the wastes of war. 

The young men of Idaho clearly recognize the opportunity thus 
presented to the man with engineering training. In the registration 
of Freshmen at the University this fall, an even one hundred registered 
in one of the four courses mentioned above. While a number of these 
did not remain at the University because they failed to pass the 
physical examination and, therefore, could not be admitted to the 
S. A. T. C. or else changed their courses of study because they quickly 
realized that their preparation was insufficient to enable them to go 
on successfully with the engineering work, nevertheless such a regis- 
tration makes plain that approximately one out of five of the men 
coming to the University of Idaho desire to prepare for engineering- 

During the past year the college has been fortunate in having the 
Board of Education construct for it an Engineering Shop building 
56 by 108 feet. This is a one-story brick structure immediately behind 
the Engineering Building. While prim_arily built for the shop, it 
will furnish needed space for expansion of the laboratories of the 
Engineering College as well as for the University Department of 
Chemistry, The transference to the new building of the wood and 
machine shops puts an end to the annoyance heretofore suffered from 
vibrations in the main Engineering Building. 

Under the inspiration of instructions from the Education Com- 
mittee of the General Government received early in September, the 
work of the Engineering College was transformed into a condensed 
and speeded up course of two years of forty-eight weeks each, pro- 
viding, in addition to academic work, for a total of eleven hours per 
week of drill and military instruction in each of the first two quar- 
ters and six hours per week of such work in each quarter thereafter. 
The principle guiding the construction of the new curricula was to 
retain the fundamental work common to the four fields and that 
especially important in each, and to cut down or out the applied 

University of Idaho 105 

courses in each field. The plan contemplated giving in the new 
curricula about seventy per cent of the work hitherto given in the 
former four-year curricula. The maintenance of these courses will 
be conditioned on the continuance of the war. 

The Electrical Engineering Department finds itself under the ne- 
cessity of replacing a part of its apparatus, now out of date, with 
current types of apparatus. There is need also for considerable ex- 
penditure for thoro repair of other apparatus either altogether out 
of commission or working inefficiently. 

The work of the Mechanical Engineering Department for the im- 
mediate future will be in the direction of assembling and installing 
in the new quarters provided, equipment already procured and sup- 
plementing this with such additional equipment as shall be necessary 
to round out what we now have and provide for a complete course 
in experimental mechanical engineering work. 

For the enlargement of shop equipment, $1775 is asked. It should 
be remembered that the engineering shops respond to important claims 
upon them, from the short course and four-year curricula in Agricul- 

The war has clearly revealed the large importance of the chemical 
industries, an importance which will hardly be lessened with the com- 
ing of peace. I am glad to renew my endorsement of the request made 
two years ago by the head of the Chemical Department for an appro- 
priation to equip and maintain for the biennium, a laboratory for 
Industrial Chemistry. The amount asked for this purpose is $3000. 

I wish also to renew the recommendation made two years ago that 
a road materials laboratory be provided in the Civil Engineering De- 
partment. According to a statement prepared by the management 
branch of the Federal Office of Public Roads, the expenditures for 
1917 on roads and bridges under the supervision of the State Highway 
Department of Idaho was $842,723. For the same year, local road 
and bridge expenditures in Idaho were estimated by the same authority 
to amount to $1,250,000. 

In the August number of the magazine published by the Office 
of Public Roads will be found the statement that during the single 
month of June, 1918, project agreements betvv^een the Federal Govern- 
ment and the State of Idaho were either approved or executed, calling 
for the expenditure of $701,577 on roads and bridges in three counties 
of the State. I cite these figures to indicate the present magnitude 
of expenditure for road construction in Idaho, an expenditure which 
must inevitably largely increase with the coming of peace. On August 
22, 1917, L. I. Hewes, District Engineer in charge of the administra- 
tion of the Federal Aid Road Act for Idaho and the adjacent terri- 
torv, wrote me as follows : 

106 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

"It will probably be necessary in the near future for this 

district office to make arrangements for tests of road materials 

to be used on roads assisted by federal aid in the State of 

Idaho. Hoping that you have a laboratory adequate for such 

• a purpose or that you will have one soon, I am 

Very respectfully, 


District Engineer." 

The amount desired to fully equip and maintain for two years an 
adequate road materials laboratory is $3500. It is manifest without 
extended argument that such a laboratory might easily save to the 
State many times its cost in the first year of its existence. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Dean, College of Engineering. 


To the President: 

The event of greatest importance affecting the School of Forestry 
the past biennium was the organization of the School, in August, 1917, 
as an independent division, thus placing forestry on a par with agri- 
culture and miining. This action was taken by the University authori- 
ties in recog-nition of the importance of the lumber industry in Idaho, 
and of the vital part forestry in general plays in the everyday life 
of the State. 

Due to the heavy inroads made on the student body by the war, the 
School in common with all other forest schools in the country, suf- 
fered in the matter of attendance in the year 1917-18, but it has rallied 
again this year and now has a record enrollment, the number major- 
ing in forestry the first quarter of 1918-19 representing an increase 
of fourteeen per cent over that of any previous year. TTie School also 
has a registration of fifty in a correspondence course entitled "Ijum- 
ber and Its Uses." The course was first announced about a year ago, 
and it has met with popular favor from the start. The registrants 
represent twenty-eight states. 

Within the biennium the School has published thru the Experiment 
Station Bulletin 105, Trees— What, Where, When, and How to Plant; 
and Circulars 4 and 5, both dealing with forest trees suitable for plant- 
ing in Idaho. There was also issued in 1917 by the faculty and stu- 
dents the Idaho Forester, a semi-technical publication, v/hich it is hoped 
will become an annual after the close of the war. Numerous popular 
articles were contributed to the press, and approximately two thous- 
and letters were written in answer to inquiries concerning forestry 
matters. Many of these letters involved the making of plans for 
windbreak, woodlot, and street or park plantings. The plan of dis- 
tributing forest and shade trees at cost was continued, and in spite 

University of Idaho 107 

of war conditions the sales the past year exceeded those of any pre- 
vious year by nearly forty per cent. 

A series of experiments was started in cooperation with the School 
of Mines, to determine the practicability of extracting oils from com- 
mercial woods of Idaho for ore flotation. The yield in gallons per 
cord, and the cost per gallon were determined for six leading species. 
Altho it is too early to draw final conclusions, the experiments thus 
far conducted are encouraging. 

In response to a demand for foresters especially trained in the 
subject, the School announced in 1917 a new four-year curriculum in 
forest grazing. This course has excellent possibilities. 

In cooperation with the Department of the Interior the School is 
now making a survey of the logged-off lands in Idaho with particular 
reference to State owned lands. This investigation looks forward to 
the providing of homes for returned soldiers. A preliminary report 
has already been submitted. 


The last biennium, due to war conditions, has properly been one 
of retrenchment. Returning as we are to a peace basis, it seems 
proper to gage the budget for the coming biennium on that of the 
biennium of 1915-16 when conditions were normal. Therefore, the 
budget requested for the next two years is equal to the actual ex- 
penditures for the year period of 1915-16, with about ten per cent 
added to provide for reasonable expansion. 

Mr. H. E. Schmelter, instructor in forestry, resigned last June to 
enter the U. S. Army, and request is made that his place be filled at 
the beginning of the coming year. The grazing problem has an ex- 
ceedingly important bearing on the question of forestry in Idaho, and 
the School should be in position to make such studies, within its field, 
as will enable it to take its rightful place in the development of the 
grazing industry of the State. It is requested, therefore, that a for- 
ester especially trained in grazing matters be added the second year. 

The School is in great need of more field and laboratory equipment, 
and it is hoped that the budget requested for this purpose can be 

Before the School of Forestry can come into its own, and render the 
service that the state has a right to expect, it must have greatly in- 
creased quarters. It is temporarily housed on the third floor of Morrill 
Hall where quarters as adequate as the College of Agriculture can 
spare are provided. But the School needs more class room and lab- 
oratory space, besides a large display room for a forest museum. One 
of the greatest needs is that of a well equipped forest products labora- 
tory, the purpose of which would be to make detailed studies of the 
physical and mechanical properties of wood, adaptability of different 
species for different uses, such as paper pulp, and wood distillates; 
also experiments in the preservative treatment of timbers to prolong 

108 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

durability, methods of kiln drying lumber, and investigations of the 
many other problems so important to the timber interests of the State. 
It is the hope, therefore, that the School will not have to wait long 
for adequate quarters of its own. 

As soon as it can be brought about, a portion of the University 
timber lands should be set aside for the use of the School as a demon- 
stration forest, where experiments in the treatment and care of forest 
lands could be conducted. Such a forest would stand in the same 
relation to forestry that the agricultural experiment station stands 
to agriculture, and in time would furnish reliable data for the solu- 
tion of the various problems met with in perpetuating timber pro- 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean, School of Forestry. 


To the President: 

The first few months of the present biennium found the College of 
Law enjoying normal conditions. Forty-two students were enrolled 
and pursuing the regular law course. In the spring of 1917 the nation 
v/as forced to declare that a state of war then existed between the 
United States and the Imperial German Government, All law students 
immediately expressed a desire to participate in the struggle and the 
entire class of 1917 offered itself to the Government. Every man 
enlisted save one who, because of physical unfitness, was unable to 
qualify. The members of all other law classes exhibited a like spirit 
and out of a total enrollment of forty-two, thirty-nine are now known 
to be in the military service of the nation, a very high percentage of 
them being commissioned officers. 

Notwithstanding war conditions, the college opened in the fall of 
1917 with an enrollment of twenty-five students pursuing full law 
courses. During the year, thirty students enrolled in other colleges 
and departments of the University and carried one or more courses 
in the College of Law. While the reduction in registration was 
marked, the percentage is less than the loss experienced by the average 
law school of the country maintaining like standards. 

The opening of work in October, 1918, found us with a large at- 
tendance of members of the Students' Army Training Corps. More 
than two hundred twenty-five men are now pursuing courses of study 
in military law and other law subjects. 

With the close of the war apparently at hand, we may confidently 
look forward to the resumption of the work under normal conditions 
during the coming biennium. The writer is of opinion that the num- 
ber of instructors employed during the first year of the present bien- 
nium will be sufficient to discharge all urgent demands of the college 
during the coming two years. 

University of Idaho 109 

With a view to meeting- more fully the conditions prevailing in the 
Northwest, the law curriculum was revised by the faculty in the spring 
of 1918. The school offers a thoro and well balanced course of studies, 
well calculated to fit students for the practice of law in the North- 
western portion of the United States. 

While the law library is growing and is a well selected library, it 
is highly desirable to add at least five hundred volumes at the earliest 
possible moment. The writer is informed that a considerable number 
of unused standard law books are now stored in the Supreme Court 
Library at Lewiston, Idaho. These books, under existing laws, are to 
be kept at Lewiston under rules and regulations prescribed by the 
Justices of the Supreme Court, Would it not be well to have the 
present statute relating to the custody of such books so modified as 
to permit unused books belonging to the above mentioned library to 
be kept in the law library of the University of Idaho? They should 
be kept in a separate section and be so accessioned as to permit a 
recall by the Justices at any time such action should seem desirable. 
While in the library here they would be as well guarded as they now 
are and they would at the same time be serving a useful purpose. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Acting Dean, College of Law. 


To the President: 

The war has interfered seriously with routine instructional work. 
Practically all of the upper classmen were gone by the fall semester 
of 1917 but in spite of this the School of Mines registered the largest 
freshman class for many years, so that the total enrollment in mining 
for 1917 was larger than it had been since 1911. With the formation 
of the S. A. T. C. the freshman class again shows an increase and 
many of the sophomores have returned to college. The enrollment in 
Geology both for technical and general science value has been satis- 
factory and gratifying. Distinct curricula in Geology, Mining, and 
Metallurgy have been provided, with a common freshman year. 

A gratifying feature of the year has been the establishment by 
Mr. Jerome J. Day of an annual scholarship of $250 tenable for four 
years, awarded to the selected student of Shoshone County, who desires 
to enroll in the School of Mines. Altogether the prospect for growth 
in number of mining students is satisfactory, altho as yet the number 
is far below that commensurate with the needs and importance of 
the mining industry in the State. 

The Mining Short Course last winter had an excellent session, the 
number being larger than for many years and the quality of students 
being exceptionally good. Comparable in some respects with the 
short-course work is a somewhat popularized correspondence course 
in the generalities of the mineral industry which it is hoped we may 
soon be able to offer. 

110 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

Mention should be made of the S. A, T. C. class in Military Sur- 
veying and Mapmaking which has been administered by the School 
of Mines with the assistance of Professor Cook of the School of For- 
estry and Professor Collier of the Department of Civil Engineering. 
Over one hundred students have been enrolled in this course, and 
the School of Mines is glad to have been of national service in initiat- 
ing this course at the University. 

In passing, mention might be made of the Traveling Vocational 
or Mining Trade School which is shortly to be inaugurated under the 
pro\dsions of the Smith-Hughes Act, the work of which will be under 
the general direction of the School of Mines. 


Due to the generous interest of the mine o\^mers of the State, it 
has been possible for the University to establish and maintain co- 
operative relations with the U. S. Bureau of Mines in metallurgical 

While the war situation has made it extremely difficult to secure 
research-fellows, progress has been made. 

Problems under investigation include: 

(1) Differential Flotation, with especial reference to the zinc-lead 
ores of the Coeur d'Alenes. 

(2) Availability of western wood-oils for flotation concentration. 

(3) Treatment of the complex gold-silver ores of southern Idaho. 
On the first project definite results are being obtained, and it is 

expected shortly that application to mill operation will be made of 
the methods developed in the School of Mines laboratories under the 
able guidance of Mr. C. A. Wright, the Bureau's representative, as- 
sisted by Mr. J. G. Parmalee who has been a most indefatigable re- 
search-fellow. The continuance of this work is a burden which prop- 
erly belongs to the State and not to the individual mine operators 
and a request is being made elsewhere for the presentation of this 
matter, through the Board to the legislature. 

Another important feature of the cooperative work has been the 
preparation of a bulletin now in the printer's hands dealing in a 
general v/ay with the mining districts and mineral industry of the 
entire State. This publication will be of m.uch utility to all persons 
concerned in the State's mineral development. 


After plans had been made for other work it was decided late in 
the spring of the current year to make the major effort of the Geo- 
logical Survey, for which an appropriation of $4000 had been pro- 
vided, an examination of the war-mineral resources of the State. Pro- 
fessor Livingston, assisted in some small measure by the writer, spent 
a strenuous summer and covered practically all known deposits of 
tungsten, m.olybdenum, manganese, mercury, antimony and lesser 

University of Idaho 111 

war minerals in the State. The detailed results of this work will 
shortly be available in the form of a bulletin which should be of con- 
siderable value in directing: attention to certain resources of the State 
hitherto neglected. 

In addition between two and three thousand mineral specimens 
have been determined, and several hundred assays and analyses of 
rocks and minerals made. 

In general and in conclusion, Mr. President, I would like to say 
that it is the desire of the School of Mines, first of all to turn out a 
sufficient supply of young men soundly and thoroly trained in the 
technique and art of the various phases of the mining industry, who 
shall be at the same time good citizens and constructive forces in the 
isolated communities where they are most likely to be called upon to 
serve; and secondly, to make its equipment, in personnel and material, 
available for the advancement and assistance of the mineral industry 
of the State which bids fair to be one of the commanding resources 
of Idaho for many years to come. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Dean, School of Mines. 


To the President: 

Upon my entrance to duties here I found the Military Department 
in excellent condition ^s the result of the efficient administration of 
Captain A. D. Cummings, who was Commandant during the aca- 
demic year 1916-17. The report of the inspecting officer who inspected 
the cadet battalion April 28, 1917, was very favorable. The more 
stringent system of discipline inaugurated showed beneficial results. 
A Senior Unit of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps had been estab- 
lished during February, 1917. The week's encampment held at Fort 
George Wright was successfully carried out. The intensive work 
given served to increase greatly the cadets' interest in military affairs. 

During the year 1917-18 instruction in grenade throwing, bayonet 
combat, military sketching, map problems, and advance guard and 
work on the relief map were added to the regular military course. 
The extra equipment purchased for the department, consisting of maps, 
sand table and sets, relief map, sketching boards with compasses and 
tripods stimulated interest on the part of the students and widened 
the range of instruction. TTie total registration in the Military De- 
partment for the year 1917-18 reached the gratifying figure of 221. 

A matter of keen satisfaction to the military staff and a source 
of pride to the entire institution is the record made by the University 
of Idaho cadets in the various officers' training camps. Up to April, 
1918, 322 cadets of the University battalion had entered the military 
service of the United States. Many more have entered since this date. 
Well over 957c of our men sent to officers' training camps were sue- 

12 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

cessful in gaining- commissions. These were all sent before the unit 
of the S. A. T. C. was established here October 1, 1918. Since that 
date and before the influenza quarantine went into effect 35 members 
of the S. A. T. C. have been sent. The armistice has since resulted 
in the closing of the officers' training camps. 

Continuous improvement in the Military department of the Uni- 
versity of Idaho was noted by the inspector at the annual inspection 
held April 20, 1918. "Good discipline, military appearance and satis- 
factory condition of all things military at the institution" were noted. 
The Military department of the University of Idaho, as the result of 
this inspection, was placed at the head of the list of institutions in its 
class in the Western Department. 

Students' Army Training Corps 

With the establishment of the S. A. T. C. the University in general 
and the Military department in particular had to face new problems 
of administration, discipline, quarters and subsistence, and a very 
burdensome increase in the amount of clerical and paper work. The 
influenza epidemic and the unusually long quarantine enforced on the 
students further complicated matters. With the exception of the Com- 
mandant and 1st Sergeant Wm. H. Abendroth the officer personnel was 
entirely new. Comparatively few of our old men were able to return 
to act as non-commissioned officers because of the draft situation. The 
spirit of helpful cooperation, however, has everywhere been excellent 
and the new officers have proven themselves to be very willing and 
capable workers. So much so indeed that we hope fully to maintain 
the good record of the Military department of the University of Idaho. 
In particular, I wish to mention the prompt, energetic and effective 
measures taken by 1st Lieut. F. J. Kotalik, the surgeon in charge. 

The Vocational Training Detachment has been made a part of the 
S. A. T. C. and is designated Section B. The Collegiate Section is 
designated Section A, The total enrollment on November 1, 1918, in 
the S. A. T. C. was 382 in Section A, and 295 in Section B. 

October 17, 1918, 300 members of Section B arrived at the Uni- 
versity and brought the influenza with them. Some were ill when 
they arrived. The epidemic later spread to Section A. Altogether 
we have had 191 cases of influenza in the S. A. T. C, 91 in Section A 
and 100 in Section B. Two deaths occurred in Section A and ten in 
Section B. The last case was admitted to the hospital November 14. 

November 26th a telegram was received from the War Department 
ordering the demobilization of both sections of the S. A. T. C. Demo- 
bilization and discharge of Section B is to begin December 2. and that 
of Section A is to begin December 4. The discharge of officers is to 
proceed beginning with December 10. This applies to all officers who 
do not desire to remain permanently in the service. The demobiliza- 
tion order is directed to all S. A. T. C. institutions in the country. As 
mentioned above there is already established at the University a 

University of Idaho 113 

Senior Unit of the R. 0. T. C. At the completion of the demobiliza- 
tion, about December 21, the Military department will revert to the 
R. O. T. C. status, under which we have operated from February, 1917. 
to the beprinning- of the present term. 

Respectfully submitted 


Captain U. S, Army. 


To the President: 

The increase, within the past three years, in the number of stu- 
dents taking up pre-medical training at the University is most en- 
couraging. Forty-tv/o enthusiastic students are taking advantage of 
the pre-medical work offered this year as compared with twenty-nine 
in 1917-18, twenty-six in 1916-17, seventeen in 1915-16, eleven in 
1914-15, and six in 1913-14. This substantial increase in the num- 
ber of students has prompted the recent adoption of a definite four 
year curriculum leading to a B. S. Pre-Medical Degree. 

The great advances of recent years in all the natural sciences have 
led to correspondingly great advances in the practice of medicine and 
surgery. In full realization of this fact, our foundational curriculum 
was made as broad and strong as may be had anywhere, and meets 
the entrance requirements of every medical school in the country. The 
work is so outlined that the student can arrange for four, three, or 
two years of work, according to the nature of the entrance require- 
ments of the institution which he contemplates entering. 

According to reports, our former students are doing exceptionally 
good work at several of the strongest medical schools. Idaho has every 
reason to feel proud of the high standing accorded her pre-medical 
work by some of the leading medical institutions. The recognition 
given us by some of the best schools is most flattering. Rush, for 
example, gives our B. S. Pre-medical graduates advanced credit in such 
courses as Comparative Anatomy, Embryology, Histology and Organ- 
ology, Heredity and Eugenics, Evolution, Cytology, and Biological 
Chemistry, equivalent to one year of medical work at that institution. 
A better recognition could not be expected by any school. 

There is every indication that the increase in enrollment in this 
department of work will, in the near future, be even greater than it 
has been in the past two or three years, and the need of the first two 
years of medical work here for the financial benefit of the large num- 
ber of students is obvious. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Chairman of Committee on Pre-medical Instruction. 

114 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

To the President: 

The past two years have meant for progress in the work of the 
AgTicultural Experiment Station. Certain important lines of inves- 
tigation have been completed and results published or now ready for 
publication. New experimental projects have been undertaken; an 
additional sub-station farm has been definitely located and develop- 
ment work started; station results have played an important part in 
the increased production and conservation work of the past 18 months ; 
station workers have rendered valuable service in the American Army, 
in the Red Cross, in various drives for funds, and in many minor 
fields of war activity. 

Until June 12th of this year the station work was under the ad- 
ministrative charge of J. S. Jones. 

Station Activities State Wide 

The activities of the Experiment Station extend to many parts of 
the State. The central station farm at Moscow consists of 375 acres 
of leased and deeded land; the Caldwell Substation, 320 acres; the Ab- 
erdeen Station, 80 acres; the High Altitude Station at Felt, 160 acres 
of dry farm land and 40 acres of irrigated land; the Experimental 
Farm at Sandpoint, 170 acres. In addition to the above it is hoped to 
have active participation in the work of the 40-acre, well improved 
Experimental Farm at Jerome. Another point from which station 
work is conducted is the Entomological Substation at Twin Falls, where 
Mr. R. H. Sm.ith is located for work with clover aphis. The Experi- 
ment Station, therefore, is statewide in its work and influence, and 
has to do with the problems of the State's agricultural development 
and prosperity. 

Federal Support 

With the exception of the Substation Farms and small appropria- 
tions for soil survey and insect pest investigation, the work of the 
Experiment Station is supported by the two federal funds, Hatch and 
Adams. Under the Hatch Act, 31 projects for separate pieces of work 
are supported, while nine projects are supported by the Adams Fund. 
Twelve separate projects carried on by members of the Station staff 
derive their support from such special appropriations as mentioned 
above, or are conducted during spare time by men who are on the 
instructional payroll of the University. 

Hatch Fund Projects 
Animal Husbandry 

1. A study of the leading breeds of sheep with special reference 

to the factors influencing production. 

2. The growing and use of silage crops other than corn for feed- 

ing beef cattle and sheep. 

University of Idaho 115 

3. Ho^^ing off field peas. 

4. Forage crops for swine. 

5. Economical rations for finishing swine. 

6. Economical rations for finishing lambs. 


1. Silage investigations. 

(a) The acidity of silage made from sunflowers, beet-tops 

and artichoke tops. 

(b) Digestion coefficients of sunflower and beet-top silage. 

2. The ash of irrigated and non-irrigated fruits. 


1. Experiments to find relation between barley and corn meal in 
the ration for dairy cattle of the northwest. 

Farm Crops 

1. Variety tests, selection and breeding of small grains. 

2. Winter barley culture. 

3. Forage crops — culture and improvement. 

4. Variety tests, selection and improvement of field peas. 

5. Cultural experiments with field peas. 

6. Variety tests, selection and improvement of field beans. 

7. Cultural experiments with field beans. 

8. Corn breeding. 

9. Root crops — culture and seed production. 
10. Questionnaire on field peas. 


1. Summer vs. winter pruning experiments. 

2. Small fruits experiment. 

3. Variety tests of vegetables. 

4. Strawberry variety tests. 

5. Apple variety tests. 

6. Potato experiments. 

7. Experiments with tomatoes. 

8. Experiments with cabbage. 

9. Experiments with garden beans. 

Poultry Husbandry 

1. Feeding for egg production. 

2. Flock management. 


1. Crop rotation and fertilization (Moscow and Sandpoint). 

Adams Fund Projects 

1. The influence of various woods on bacterial activity in the soil. 

2, The relation of nitrates to nodule formation. 

116 Biennial Report, 19 17-1 ii 


1. Factors influencing the protein content of wheat. 

(a) Correlation of available soil in nitrogen and the protein 

content of wheat. 

(b) Baking studies on types of Idaho wheats. 

2. Factors influencing the ripening of fruits, particularly apples. 


1. A study of the type of organisms present and multiplying in 
cottage cheese. 


1. Apple breeding. 


1. Duty of water. 

2. Alkali investigations. 


1. Cytological studies 

(a) Additional cytological studies of the reproductive cells 

of the mule. 

(b) Cytological studies of the reproductive cells of cattle. 

(c) Cytological st"udies of the reproductive cells of sheep. 

Projects Supported by University Maintenance Funds or Special 
State Appropriations 

Agricultural Engineering 

1. Farm sewage disposal. 

1. Commercial preparation of culture for the inoculation of nitro- 
gen-gathering bacteria. 


1. Forest by-products. 

2. Experimental tree planting. 

3. Grazing studies. 

Poultry Husbandry 

1. Poultry house construction. 

Pure Seed 

1. Field work. 

Field visitation, encouragement of crop diversification, as- 
sistance in marketing of seeds, development of seed grow- 
ers' associations. 

2. Investigation 

Weeds, cost of producing clean seed. 

3. Weed survey. 

4. Laboratory work — analytical. 

5. Inspection. 

University of Idaho 117 

Zoology and Entomology 

1. A study of clover aphis and methods for its control. 

Aberdeen Substation 
L. C. Aicher 

Irrigation and dry-farm investig:ations with cereals, forage crops, 
potatoes and corn. 

Caldwell Substation 
C. M. Eklof 

1. Dairy herd management 

2. Hogg-ing-off experiments. 

3. Forage crops and grains. 

High Altitude Substation at Felt 
W. A. Moss 

Experiments with varieties and -with cultural methods for grain 
and forage crop production under both dry farming and irriga- 
tion at an altitude in excess of 6000 feet. 

Jerome Substation 
Geo. Dewey 

1. Potato disease investigations. 

2. Potato cultural methods. 

Sandpoint Substation 
F. H. Lafranz, Supt. 

1. Clearing land — :hogging-ofF work. 

2. Cereals and forage crops. 

Hatch Projects Yield Results 

Significant and highly valuable results have been secured in carry- 
ing on these projects during the past two years. Information not 
heretofore available has been secured with reference to productive 
factors in several breeds of sheep, with special regard to the effects 
of milk yields on the growth of lambs. New silage crops have been 
successfully grown and fed to livestock, and valuable information 
secured by station chemists with reference to the development of acids 
in something like 15 different silage crops and silage crops mixtures. 
The variety and cultural tests with field peas and variety tests of 
corn of the Farm Crops Department have been especially successful. 
Under conditions quite similar to the open field a yield of 84 bushels 
per acre was obtained with a particular variety of field corn. Rus- 
tler's White Dent. Calls for seed of this corn come from a wide 

The horticultural experiments in vegetable gardening and in evap- 
oration and canning have been of immense practical benefit in the 
conservation campaign of the past eighteen months. The Depart- 
ment of Poultry Husbandry has clearly shown that animal protein 
in some form is necessary for profitable e^g production. The addi- 

118 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

tion of sour milk to a vegetable protein ration resulted in increased 
egg production, something like 1000%. The soil rotation and fertilizer 
experiments have indicated the possibility of an increase of six to 
eight bushels of wheat per acre in the Palouse farming sections by the 
application of sodium nitrate. All of the work mentioned above was 
supported by the Hatch Fund, which consists of an annual appropria- 
tion from the U. S. Treasury of $15,000, to be expended with the ap- 
proval of the Federal Office of Experiment Stations. 

Adams Fund Results 

Tlie Adams Fund, a federal appropriation of the same amount as 
with the Hatch, by the terms of the bill making the grant is used foi 
carefully outlined investigations of a fundamental scientific nature. 
Substantial progress has been made on the projects heretofore listed. 
A report in bulletin form is nearing completion on the investigation 
of the relation of soil nitrate to nodule formation. A number of 
trees in the apple breeding experiment are now bearing fruit. The 
newly accepted project in cytological studies promises valuable scientific 
information with reference to the problems of heredity. 

Other Projects 

The University-made culture for the inoculation of peas, beans, 
clover and alfalfa has been wonderfully popular. A sufficient price 
per acre has been charged, 25c during 1918, to cover the cost of material 
and labor, except the supervision of the trained bacteriologist in charge. 

The following table shows the kinds of culture and amount on the 
acreage basis for the biennium: 

Kind 1917 1918 Total 

Peas 11272 acres 7482 acres 18754 acres 

Beans 4187 3150 7337 

Alfalfa 2926 2585 5511 

Clover 2250 1745 3995 

20635 14962 35597 

The tested trees of the School of Forestry are increasingly popular. 
The special appropriation for insect pests has been entirely expended 
in studying the clover aphis and testing methods for controlling it. 
A bulletin reporting highly valuable information in regard to success- 
ful control measures will be ready for public distribution prior to 
the first of the year. 

Substation Farms 

The Substation Farms, with the exception of those at Aberdeen 
and Jerome, have had inadequate support. The Aberdeen Farm is 
.'■•Lipported jointly by state and federal funds, and the Jerome Station 
r-ntireiy by federal funds. The present arrangement at Jerome results 
in strict federal management. Recommendation for a change is found 

University of Idaho 119 

elsewhere. The Aberdeen Station is becoming an influential factor in 
agricultural development methods in southeastern Idaho. After cer- 
tain revision of plans and land improvement, the stations at Cald- 
well and Sandpoint may well be expecied to wield a t^niiilar helpful 
influence. Much is hoped in the way of interesting: and highly valu- 
able information from the new High Altitude Station in Teton County. 

Changes in Staff 

As a result of war measures, numerous changes have taken place 
in the station staff. -There have been eleven resignation'?, four leaves 
of absence for the period of the war, and nine new appointments. 


Members of the Experiment Station staff have contributed numer- 
ous articles of a popular nature to the University News Letter and to 
various agricultural and technical journals. These contributions, to- 
gether with the bulletins and circulars of the Station, were important 
in connection with the food production and conservation campaign. 

A list of Station publications follows: 
Bulletin 93. Experiments with Small Grains under Irrigation, "Welch, 

Bulletin 94. Experiments with Legume Crops under Irrigation, Welch, 

Bulletin 95. TTie Management of Irrigated Grass Pastures, Welch, 

Bulletin 96. The Management of Farm Flocks in Idaho, Vincent. 1917. 
Bulletin 97. Commercial Onion Culture in Idaho, Vincenr, 1917. 
Bulletin 98. Winter versus Summer Pruning of Apple Trees, Vincent, 

Bulletin 99. Experiments in the Irrigation of Apple Orchards, Tay- 
lor, Downing, 1917. 
Bulletin 100. The Production of Clover Seed under Irrigation in 

Southern Idaho, Aicher, 1917. 
Bulletin 101. The Production of Alfalfa Seed in Southern Idaho, 

Aicher, 1917. 
Bulletin 102. The Management of Dairy Herds, Ellington, 1917. 
Circular 4. Forest and Shade Trees and Basket Willows Recommend- 
ed for Planting in Idaho, Shattuck, 1917. 
Bulletin 103. Performance Records of Some Eastern Wheats in Idaho, 

Jones, Colver, 1918. 
Bulletin 104. Annual Report for Year 1917, Jones. 
Bulletin 105. Trees, What, Where, When and How to Plant, Shattuck, 

Cook, 1918. 
Bulletin 106. The Home Garden in Idaho, Edmundson, Welch, 1918. 
Bulletin 107. Soils of Latah County, Idaho, Peterson, 1918. 
Bulletin 108. Sprays for the Control of San Jose Scale, Edmundson, 

120 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

Bulletin 109. The Protein Content of Wheat under Irrigfation, Dec. 

Bulletin 110. Drying and Serving- Fruits and Vegetables in the 

Home, Vincent, Hoover, 1918. 
Bulletin 111. Power Farming in Idaho, Wooley, 1918. 
Bulletin 112. A Study of Clover Aphis and Methods for its Control, 

Smith, 1918. 
Bulletin 113. Annual Report for Year ending Dec. 31, 1918. 
Circular 4. Tested Forest Trees for Planting in Idaho, Miller, 1918. 
Circular 5. Idaho Spray Calendar, Vincent, Willis, 1918. 
Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. XII, No. 4: 

Influence of Nitrates on Nitrogen Assimilating Bacteria, Hills. 

Reprints furnished for Idaho Experiment Station. 
.Journal of Agricultural Research, Vol. XIV, No. 10: 

Acidity of Silage Made from Various Crops, Neidig. 

Reprints furnished for Idaho Experiment Station. 


The requests for publications will scarcely suffice to take care of 
those needed. The University News Letter now reaches about 9000 
people in Idaho. By the end of another year it is planned to have it 
reach several thousand additional Idaho residents. This will require 
additional filing cabinets, name plates, and other addressing and mail- 
ing equipment. Two typewriters now in use are no longer in good 
repair. An item of $200 is found in the budget for the replacement 
of these machines. For efficiency in the preparation of bulletin and 
report maunscripts, it is proposed to purchase two long-carriage ma- 


The Department of Agriculttiral Chemistry formerly employed four 
men. There are now but two people employed in the department, and 
there has been authorized for some time the employment of an Associate 
Chemist. It is planned to defer such an appointment until March 1, 
and provision is made to this effect in the budget. 


A substantial increase in requested in Bacteriology. This is pri- 
marily for investigation. In the study of the inoculation of legumes, 
Dr. Paul Emerson proposes to extend the work, carrying some of it 
under greenhouse rather than under the restricted conditions in one 
corner of the laboratory. 

In Farm Crops there is an increased request for funds, and the 
importance of the Farm Crops work in Idaho thoroly justifies adequate 
support of this department. Professor Bonnet of this department 
desires to do .some cooperative work with the farmers in various sec- 
tions of the state which will cost additional money. 

University of Idaho 121 


Requests will be noted for Plant Physiology and Plant Pathology. 
The first named work will be handled by Professor V. H. Young, of 
the Department of Botany, for the most part during the summer vaca- 
tion. The plant disease situation with reference to potatoes, wheats, 
and other cereals, and orchard and garden crops of this State, is of 
such importance that it is deemed necessary to employ a plant path- 


The burning of the Administration Building several years ago de- 
stroyed the early files of bulletins, and new files have been assembled 
only after the exercise of patience and perseverance in trying to re- 
place lost material. At the present time the bulletins, reports, and 
other library material of interest to agricultural instructors and to 
research men in Agriculture is not in shape that it can be used to the 
best advantage. It will require the time of one person for an entire 
year to properly index and assemble the library pertaining particular- 
ly to agriculture. I have not made a separate request for this, since 
I take it that the needs of the library should be set forth as a unit 
rather than by colleges. It is highly important that sufficient help be 
provided in the library so that one worker can be assigned to that 
portion of the library, especially bulletins and reports, of particular 
interest to the Agricultural College and Experiment Station, and that 
liberal provision be made for binding, in order that much of this 
material may be put in a more permanent form. 


This farm will in time be able to provide a much larger share of its 
own support. There is need of additional clearing and of considerable 
development work. I am quoting the recommendations of Superintend- 
ent F. H. Lafrenz, which are approved: 

"Relative to the budget for the coming biennium, I feel that to get 
the farm in shape so that it can accomplish its purpose we must have 
more stock, more land cleared, more equipment, and more buildings, 
which will make it necessary to ask for an appropriation of $10,000, 
in addition to the net income, $12,000." 


The Caldwell farm has never been entirely satisfactory. First of 
all, not enough of the total 320 acres has been reclaimed from sage- 
brush. Second, the general plans for handling the farm have not been 
well adapted to the region. 

First of all, there must be acquired a permanent water right for 
the farm, which will cost $21,724.08. Of this amount, $2700 must 
of necessity be paid during the coming biennium. Already plans have 
been made for leasing 80 acres of the farm under such terms as will 
return the land to us levelled and in alfalfa at the end of the fourth 

122 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

year. The remainder of the farm it is proposed to handle in two 
ways: first, a unit of from 80 to 120 acres will be set aside as a diversi- 
fied farm. Such acreage in various crops and such livestock will be 
kept on the farm as would typify the best farm management of the 
Boise Valley region. The remainder of the farm should be kept in 
alfalfa or in alfalfa and grain, and made to furnish feed for an 
experimental feeding plant, which will be discussed later. The amount 
requested for support of the farm during the 1919-20 biennium is 


It is proposed during the coming year to turn the entire farm at 
Aberdeen into an irrigated experimental farm. This means the hand- 
ling under irrigation of something like 75 acres, exclusive of building 
sites and yards, as compared with 26 formerly under irrigation. The 
Aberdeen Station has been doing some splendid work, and is beginning 
to exercise a decided influence on the farming practices in southeastern 
Idaho. Superintendent Aicher's request of $6000 for the support of the 
Station is regarded as modest. 


The Experiment Farm at Jerome, consisting of 40 acres, was pro- 
vided by the business men interested in the upbuilding of the irrigated 
country contiguous to Jerome, and the buildings were erected by special 
state appropriation. The farm has been leased for $1.00 per year to 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and thru the Bureau of Plant 
Industry the farm has been handled as a station for the investigation 
of the problems of potato production. 


Numerous difficulties have been met with in selecting a site for the 
High Altitude Experiment Farm, but as now located the station con- 
sists of 160 acres of dry farming land and 40 acres of irrigated land. 
A contract for material and arrangements for construction have just 
been made, providing for the erection of a cottage on the 40 acres of 
irrigated land. This will be made the headquarters, and the dry farm- 
ing land will be handled in connection. The irrigated land is within 
three-quarters of a mile of the postofiice of the town of Felt. The 
needs are estimated at $7000. The field for doing interesting and high- 
ly valuable work at Felt has been called to the attention of the Office 
of Cereal Investigations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and 
negotiations have been undertaken already with this office with the 
purpose of obtaining federal aid for the work at Felt in a similar 
manner to the plans that prevail at Aberdeen. 

Four thousand dollars was provided by the 1917 legislature especial- 
ly for insect pest investigations and control, and has been expended 

Unive7'sity of Idaho 123 

entirely in work with the clover aphis. Such progress has been made 
in methods for aphis control that it seems possible to entirely control 
this pest, which in some districts in southern Idaho has almost entirely 
destroyed the profitable industry of clover seed production. In order 
that this work may be completed and other important work under- 
taken, an appropriation of $6000 is requested for the coming biennium. 


Dr. P. P. Peterson of the Department of Soils has submitted to 
you separately a report of this year's work done with the $1200 ap- 
propriated for soil survey. Last year's work was done in northern 
Idaho in a similar way to the work done in southeastern Idaho this 
year. For the coming biennium $2000 is asked. The U. S. Bureau of 
Soils contributes funds when State funds are provided. 


With the exception of occasional appropriations for such special 
work as soil survey, insect pest control and other similar special enact- 
ments, there has been no state support for the work of the Idaho 
Experiment Station. With no other support than the Hatch and Adams 
funds mentioned before, it is impossible for the Idaho Experiment Sta- 
tion to do the work that should be done in Idaho, and to serve the 
agricultural needs of the state in handling a large number of problems 
that concern the agricultural development and future prosperity of the 
farming population. 

A request is made, therefore, for a sum of $30,000 for the biennium, 
to be expended entirely for experimental work in agriculture — this 
sum to be known as the Hatch Fund Offset. This money will supple- 
ment in a large number of directions the work of the Hatch Fund, and 
particularly will enable the work of the Station to be much more valu- 
able to the State as a whole. It may be of interest to say just a word 
in regard to some of the things that might be done with this money. 
A matter of prime consideration is the employment of an experienced 
and trained man for experimental work in Animal Husbandry and 
the use of a portion of the proposed state appropriation for the develop- 
ment of a feeding station on the Experiment Farm at Caldwell. The 
feeding problems, particularly those of southern Idaho, are complicated, 
and the Idaho Experiment Station is not in possession of information 
that will enable it to answer many of the ordinary inquiries that come 
to us. The problem of providing a satisfactory method of using our 
great yields of alfalfa hay is alone of sufficient importance to justify 
the appropriation of the entire amount requested. 


The agricultural resources of Idaho are of vast extent and import- 
ance. Much has been done in the way of development and utilization, 
but in all probability greater accomplishments nre stiD to come. Sci- 

124 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

ence is to have the largest role in solviti;^ probhims of soil fertility, 
plant and animal breeding, animal feeding, crop production, insect 
pests and plant diseases, distribution of farm products, and economy, 
convenience and comfort on the farm and in the home. The aim of 
the Idaho Experiment Station will be to more and more directly serve 
the needs of the State along the lines indicated. 

To ascertain the needs of the people, a questionnaire has been 
distributed to County Agents and other Extension workers, and to 
representative farmers in various parts of the State. Those who re- 
ceive the questionnaire are asked to indicate a list of problems that 
might be undertaken by the Station and to offer suggestions in regard 
to how the work of the Station may be made more im.mediately useful 
in the State's agricultural progress and up-building. 

There is a close correlation in the functions of investigation, in- 
struction, and extension. The Experiment Station is foundational to 
success in the two closely related lines of work. Information secured 
bj'' station virorkers is given to students by the instructional staff at 
Moscow, and carried by Extension workers from the headquarters at 
Boise to the most remote sections of Idaho. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Dean and Director. 



(To be printed later in separate Bulletin.) 

Unive7\<ii.ty of Idaho 



Sources of Funds 

State appropriation $52,449.52 

Amount used to complete State offset to 
Smith-Lever increase and accounted for un- 
der "Offset Smith-Lever" .25 

Amount disbursed to December 1 $52,449.27 

Offset Smith-Lever 

Local funds $19,430.00 

From State appropriation .25 

Total offset $19,430.25 

Federal Smith-Lever 

January 1, 1917-June 30, 1917 $10,474.71 

July 1, 1917-June 30, 1918 18,290.24 

July 1, 1918-December 1, 1918 6,855.70 

Total disbursed Dec. 1, 1918 $35,620.65 

Total funds expended by Agriculttiral Exten- 
sion Division of the University of Idaho to 
December 1, 1918 $107,500.17 

Unexpended balance (Federal Smith-Lever 

appropriation) 959.83 

Total appropriation biennium 1917-1918 $108,460.00 



State Funds 






County Agents 

Home Economics 

Dairy Extension 


Boys' and Girls' Clubs 


Animal Husbandry 

Extension Schools 




RoHent control 










$ 2,850.13 










$52,449.27 $19,430.25 

? 7,835.37 


















Biennial Report, 1917-18 






Stationery and small printing 

Postage, telegraph and telephone, 

freight and express 

Heat, light and power 



Tools and machinery 

Furniture and fixtures 

Scientific apparatus 




State Funds 


















$16,399.04 $19,356.76 

302.50 819.69 

300.00 1.162.00 

549.00 1.536.21 



















$ 62,546.66 













1. Administration $ 42,870.00 

2. County Agents 100,150.00 

3. Home economics 67,245.00 

4. Boys' and Girls' Clubs 73,580.00 

5. Horticulture 7,920.00 

6. Entomology 5,520.00 

7. Animal husbandry 8,940.00 

8. Extension Schools 13,000.00 

9. Publications 6,600.00 

10. Pure seed 2,780.00 

11. Dairying 11,590.00 

12. Agronomy 11,800.00 

13. Soils 4,115.00 

14. Reserve 4,906.56 

15. Rodent control 600.00 

16. Farm help specialist 600.00 

Total $362,216.56 

Reduction, State Board of Education 75,273.28 

Balance $286,943.28 

Less Federal Smith-Lever 46,943.28 

To be appropriated $240,000.00 

University of Idaho 127 


First Contingent 

To the President: 

In the spring of 1918 the University was requested to assist in 
the training of soldiers along special vocational lines. A study of the 
situation showed that while the shops were sufficient in size and fairly 
well equipped for handling students in small groups, it was not ad- 
visable to take more than one hundred men in the first contingent. 
These men arrived in Moscow June 15th. They were all Idaho men 
and every county in Idaho was represented. Men, not of draft age, 
who already had more or less training, volunteered for this special 
war work. They were divided according to previous training into five 
groups as follows: 40 radio operators, 20 auto mechanics, 20 general 
mechanics, 10 carpenters, and 10 blacksmiths. 

They were quartered in Lewis Court, one of the first jobs of the 
carpenters being the laying of a floor in this building. Mess was served 
in the girls' dormitory, and the work was soon under way. Courses 
had been outlined in detail and approved by the Committee on Edu- 
cation and Special Training at Washington. This training, which 
lasted two months, was on a wholly different basis than regular college 
work, consisting of not more than thirty minutes per day given to 
lectures or recitation and at least five and one-half hours per day of 
actual shop practice. Two hours were spent in military practice and 
one hour each afternoon was given to recreation in addition to Satur- 
day afternoons. One hour each evening was set aside as a study hour. 
The students entered into the work with an eagerness to learn as much 
as possible in the short time. The more capable were put in charge of 
small squads of men and given a chance to show leadership. Four 
from this group were sent to Officers' Training Camps. The results 
of this training were most satisfactory, the instructors without excep- 
tion being enthusiastic over the interest taken in the work and the 
results obtained. The Military Department showed the greatest possi- 
ble interest in the work and cooperated in every way with the Uni- 
versity authorities. Too much credit cannot be given to the command- 
ing officer. Captain George W. Edgington, of Idaho Falls, and his 
capable assistants, Dr. Frank Kotalik, Lieutenants E. B. Hanna and 
J. A. Kimball. 

The men completed their training on the 14th of August, were 
each rated by at least three different instructors as apprentices, jour- 
neymen or experts, and transferred to other camps. From the 100 
men in the first contingent there were no failures, every man being 
sent out with a rating such as to place him in the army doing his 
selected work. 

128 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

Second Conting-ent 

From the first contingent five men were selected to serve as in- 
structors in the second contingent of 102 men who arrived August 
15th. This group was divided into the same five groups, there being, 
however, 40 auto mechanics and only 20 radio operators. 

While this contingent was here it was decided to prepare for a 
larger number of men from October 15th to June 15th. An additional 
building, for auto mechanics, 40 x 40 feet and two stories high, was 
built by the carpenter group. Later, information was received that 
the Student Army Training Corps was to be fed and haused at the 
University so a mess hall for 600 was constructed. This was built 
in the form of an H, the kitchen in the center being 30 x 30 feet, and 
each building was considered an emergency, work was rushed and 
meals were served one week after starting the structure. 

It seemed to be impossible to care for the vocational men on the 
Campus so the plant of the Idaho National Harvester was taken over. 
One building was equipped as a mess hall. Barracks were secured 
by taking over a large brick livery barn which was completely over- 
hauled by the men in the second contingent. New floors were laid on 
the first two stories and the basement was made into a toilet and 
washroom with cement floor. These barracks were not sufficient, 
however, and small barracks, 20 x 120 feet long, were erected on the 
lot adjoining. This building was completed in two days by the second 

Third Contingent 

On October 15th the Third Contingent arrived and work was begun 
soon after this date. T"he shops were placed in order. A building 
was constructed for the work in radio operation and another remodeled 
for carpentry and blacksmithing. There were 295 men in the con- 
tingent including 20 men held over from the Second Contingent as 
soldier instructors. Of these about 100 came from Wyoming and the 
remainder from Idaho. 

Very considerable interference with the work was produced by 
the Spanish influenza epidemic which was the cause of all deaths. 
Great commendation is due to Captain Luther Felker and Dr. Kotalik 
for their cooperation with the University in this trying time. 

After a study of the training given in these short periods and the 
interest of the students in their work it seems to me that short courses 
in vocaional training of men might well become a permanent part 
of the University curriculum. In these courses entrance requirements 
need not be rigid and very little time should be spent on theory. Small 
classes should be under competent instructors and the students would 
learn while actually getting the practice. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

Director Soldier Training, Section B. 

University of Idaho 129 



DECEMBER 1. 1918 

Income : 

Appropriation $648,860.00 

Buildings and betterment 112,000.00 

Pure seed appropriation 10,000.00 

Balance 1915-16 appropriation Jan. 1, 1917 3,170.89 

Balance of Federal moneys Jan. 1, 1917 4,810.80 

Balance of old bond issue, 1907 75.65 

Free balance February 1, 1917 40,698.08 

Income allowed by State Board of Examiners.. 20,812.82 

Mining cooperative trust fund 3,309.36 

Total $843,737.60 

Expenditures : 

College of Letters and Science $154,074.05 

College of Agriculture 140,928.06 

College of Engineering 24,554.80 

College of Law 13,185.16 

School of Mines 22,447.01 

School of Forestry 13,960.28 

Agricultural Extension 107,767.58 

Experiment Substations 29,996.08 

Administration 40,616.41 

Special appropriations 29,180.75 

General 84,600.19 

Buildings 89,932.38 

Total $751,242.75 

Balance December 1, 1918 $ 92,494.85 


L Maintenance (including) $722,988.00 

College of Letters $217,668.00 

College of Agriculture 175,290.00 

College of Engineering 33,335.00 

School of Forestry 18,220.00 

College of Law 15,420.00 

School of Mines 19,765.00 

Summer School 10,000.00 

Administration 53,225.00 

General expenditures 33,200.00 

130 Biennial Report, 1917-18 

Operation and repairs 88,865.00 

Experiment Station 58,000.00 

II. Capital Additions — Buildings 74,361.00 

Total , $797,349.00 

Less — 

Federal Appropriation $160,000.00 

Federal Endowment 206,000.00 

Local income (not including Ex. Sta.) . . 40,000.00 


Recommended by Board for legislative ap- 
propriation $391,349.00 

III. Extension in Agriculture and Home Econ- 
omics $286,943.28 

Less Smith-Lever Federal Fund 46,943.28 

Recommended by Board for legislative ap- 
propriation 240,000.00 

Grand Total $631,349.00 




3 0112 105628975